Repetitive-motion injuries can cause pain in the hand and wrist. Carpal tunnel syndrome is an impingement on the median nerve in the area of the wrist that can cause numbness, tingling, and eventually pain or cramping in the hand. Trauma or injuries such as strains and sprains can also cause wrist pain.
Tenosynovitis refers to the inflammation of the sheath, or synovium, that surrounds the tendons.
- Chronic Overuse Syndrome
- Direct injury to your wrist or tendon; scar tissue can restrict movement of the tendons
- Inflammatory arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis
The main forms include de Quervain tenosynovitis; trigger finger (stenosing tenosynovitis involving the flexor digitorum tendons); stenosing tenosynovitis of the extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, or extensor comunis tendons; stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis tendon; and stenosing tenosynovitis of the peroneal tendons. The cardinal finding on ultrasonography is the presence of a thickened retinaculum or pulley that constricts the osseofibrous tunnel through which the tendon runs.
de Quervain tenosynovitis is a mechanical disorder related to hypertrophy of the retinaculum that covers the first dorsal compartment of the wrist.
Stenosing tenosynovitis affects tendons that run through osseofibrous tunnels, each enclosed in its own synovial sheath.
Trigger finger is a disorder characterised by catching or locking of the involved finger. Pain may occur in the palm of the hand or knuckles. The condition develops when the flexor digitorum tendons, which control the movements of the fingers and thumb, become irritated. This can make them thicken within the tendon sheath that surrounds the flexor tendons.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel. The main symptoms are pain, numbness and tingling in the thumb, index finger, middle finger and the thumb side of the ring fingers.
This type of arthritis occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones deteriorates over time. Osteoarthritis in the wrist is uncommon and usually occurs only in people who have injured that wrist in the past.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
An autoimmune disease that causes pain and swelling of the joints, rheumatoid arthritis may be seen in the wrist and in the small joints of the fingers.
A wrist sprain is an injury to its ligaments, the tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect bones to one another inside a joint.
A wrist sprain occurs when the wrist is bent or twisted forcefully, such as caused by a fall onto an outstretched hand.
The most common ligament to be injured in the wrist is the scapho-lunate ligament.
A fracture is when the continuity of a bone is broken. A scaphoid fracture involves a bone on the thumb side of the wrist.
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex (TFCC) injury
The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is a cartilage structure located on the small finger side of the wrist that, cushions and supports the small carpal bones in the wrist. The TFCC keeps the forearm bones (radius and ulna) stable when the hand grasps or the forearm rotates. An injury or tear to the TFCC can cause chronic wrist pain. It occurs often in those who fall on an outstretched hand.
These soft tissue cysts occur most often on the part of your wrist opposite your palm. Ganglion cysts may be painful, and pain may either worsen or improve with activity.
This disorder typically affects young adults and involves the progressive collapse of one of the small bones in the wrist. Kienbock’s disease occurs when the blood supply to this bone is compromised.